If you have experienced childhood trauma, you can speak with a Blue Knot Helpline trauma counsellor including for support and applications around national redress

1300 657 380
Monday - Sunday
between 9am - 5pm AEST
or via email helpline@blueknot.org.au


Do you live with disability?  Have you experienced abuse, neglect, violence or exploitation?

For support for Disability Royal Commission or general support contact our National Counselling & Referral Service

1800 421 468
9am - 6pm AEST Mon- Fri
9am - 5pm AEST Sat, Sun & public holidays


What is childhood trauma?



“I have attended one of your workshops for Health Professionals and found it to be one of the most enlightening and useful trainings I have attended. In particular, I really got an understanding of how to best deal with people in crisis related to past trauma.”


“The workshop was outstanding - could be used for all practitioners no matter what their discipline. I would hope that you would promote it among psychologists - particularly because the focus was on "abuse" without putting the various types of abuse into boxes.”


“I recommend Blue Knot Foundation's trauma training to every professional, worker of all setting, survivor, and carer. The better trained the earlier the diagnosis and a better chance for survivor recovery.”


“I would highly recommend Blue Knot Foundation training. The information and research is impressive and relevant; the facilitator knew her stuff, was engaging and provided relevant examples.”


Childhood trauma and memory

"Recovered" memories is the descriptor given to recall of traumatic events, typically but not exclusively, of child sexual abuse, by adults who have exhibited little or no previous awareness of such experiences. While the term `repressed’ memory is sometimes used as a synonym, this is problematic because current research is shedding increased light on the differences between repression and dissociation (Howell & Itzkowitz, 2016). Reference to `repressed’ memory is also somewhat pejorative in evoking the so-called `false memory’ phenomenon of the 1990s (see below). Current clinical and neuroscientific research into the nature of memory has advanced considerably since the end of the last century; arguably the term `delayed onset memory recall’ is now preferable for this reason.

Also related to delayed onset or recovered memory is the term "traumatic amnesia". The phenomenon of traumatic amnesia has been noted in a variety of populations over the last century, including war veterans, Holocaust survivors, and survivors of natural disasters. By the mid-1980s, a significant body of research indicated that many adult survivors of child sexual abuse also suffer from traumatic amnesia. While some people always remember having been abused, others do not remember anything about their experiences for many years, whilst others recall some but not all of the details of their abuse.

Current research upholds that memory is not unitary but comprised of networks or subsystems and that different types of memory (namely explicit, conscious and implicit, largely non-conscious) are stored in different parts of the brain. Traumatic memory is implicit, and manifests somatically and via behavioural re-enactments rather than words (as the book titles The Body Remembers and The Body Keeps the Score convey). Memory too overwhelming (traumatic) to be assimilated by the central nervous system arises as `fragmented splinters of inchoate and indigestible sensations, emotions, images, smells, tastes, thoughts’ (Levine, 2015:7). It thus functions quite differently from conscious, explicit, memory.


Traumatic amnesia was long regarded as a major obstacle to prosecution of child sexual abuse. Prior to the 1980s, survivors were often unable to pursue civil charges as the crime had occurred so long previously that they were not permitted to sue by law. In criminal cases, defendants often claimed that adult survivors were `unreliable witnesses’ because they had not reported the abuse until years or decades later.

Increased understanding of the nature, types and functions of memory is challenging this perception. By the late 1980s, lawyers argued that the limitation period (or the "statute of limitations") for child sex offenses should be extended in cases where a complainant has suffered from traumatic amnesia. Growing insight into the neurological processes of memory types, and the dynamics of recovered memory, requires the law and justice systems to reflect these enhanced understandings. “Numerous cases in various parts of the world have demonstrated that recovered memories have been verified and corroborated by independent evidence or admissions of guilt by perpetrators or findings of guilt by courts”. https://blogs.brown.edu/recoveredmemory/case-archive/legal-cases/

So, too, does acknowledgement of the protective purposes served by (conscious) `forgetting’ of trauma, which, in the case of childhood trauma, preserves the attachment bond to caregivers on which children’s survival depends (Freyd & Birrell, 2013).

In the contemporary period, the `false’ vs `recovered’ memory debate has largely been replaced by that between the contrasting paradigms of the `Fantasy’ vs `Trauma’ models of dissociation. The Trauma Model contends that Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) `is etiologically related to chronic neglect and physical and/or sexual abuse’, while the Fantasy Model (also known as the sociocognitive or iatrogenic model) claims that DID can be simulated and is the product of `high suggestibility, fantasy proneness, and sociocultural influences’ (Vissia, Giesen et al, 2016:111). In the first study to jointly test these two models empirically with DID participants, the DID group was found not to be more fantasy-prone or to generate more false memories - `Evidence consistently supported the Trauma Model of DID and challenges the core hypothesis of the Fantasy Model’ (Vissia, Giesen et al, ibid: 111; also Dalenberg et al, 2012).

For helpful references regarding this and related topics (including `The Accuracy of Recovered Memories’, `Delayed Recall of Trauma vs `False Memories’, and `Psychology Textbooks’ Coverage of Traumatic Amnesia and `Recovered’ Memory’, see Bethany Brand www.teachtrauma.com/controversial-topics-trauma/dissociation-trauma-based-fantasy-based/.

For further information, please see the Blue Knot Foundations Fact Sheet on 'Memory'.

Please also see article (14-10-17) from the Weekend Australian 'Reporting revives bad memories of contentious theories' by Warwick Middleton, Martin Dorahy & Michael Salter. 

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“Blue Knot Foundation has a key role to play in the building of community capacity in care provision to those who have experienced childhood abuse and trauma in any environment.”

NIALL MULLIGAN Manager, Lifeline Northern Rivers

“I think Blue Knot Foundation is a fantastic support organisation for people who have experienced childhood trauma/abuse, for their families/close friends and for professionals who would like to learn how to more effectively work with these people.”

Psychologist Melbourne

“It's such a beautiful thing that you are doing. Helping people to get through this.”


“It was only last September when I discovered the Blue Knot Foundation website and I will never forget the feeling of support and empathy that I received when I finally made the first phone call to Blue Knot Helpline, which was also the first time I had ever spoken about my abuse.”


"At last there is some sound education and empathetic support for individuals and partners impacted by such gross boundary violations.”


Contact Us

Phone: 02 8920 3611
PO Box 597 Milsons Point NSW 1565
Hours: Mon-Fri, 9am-5pm AEST

Blue Knot Helpline
Phone: 1300 657 380
Email: helpline@blueknot.org.au 
Hours: Mon-Sun, 9am-5pm AEST

For media comment, please contact:
Dr Cathy Kezelman
+61 425 812 197
+61 2 8920 3611
or ckezelman@blueknot.org.au

For media enquiries, please contact: 
Jo Scard
+61 457 725 953 
or jo@fiftyacres.com