For all in-house training enquiries, click here or call us on (02) 8920 3611 to speak to our training team. Download our In-house Training Booklet here

Coping Strategies


Arousal-reduction tools

Being hyper-aroused is a common experience for adult survivors. It can include:

  • Having a difficult time falling or staying asleep.
  • Feeling more irritable or having outbursts of anger.
  • Having difficulty concentrating.
  • Feeling constantly ‘on guard’ or like danger is lurking around every corner.
  • Being ‘jumpy’ or easily startled (Giarratano, 2004a)

A state of hyper-arousal is a natural response to a dangerous situation or threat. Many survivors of trauma and abuse remain in a constant state of alarm because the fight/flight response is triggered repeatedly (Giarratano, 2004b), and without evident purpose (Cloitre, Cohen, & Koenen, 2006). Anger can also be a feature of a survivor's response to trauma and abuse as it is a core component of the survival response.  Anger helps people cope with life's adversities by providing increased energy in the face of obstacles.

Anxiety is common among trauma survivors as it is typically generated by experiences that are unpredictable, uncontrollable, or unfamiliar, i.e. the characteristics of trauma, abuse or danger. Anxiety ensures readiness for coping with an unidentified danger (Cloitre et al., 2006) and has an adaptive function. This may be because multiple, unidentified trauma reminders exist in the environment that trigger anxiety, or because trauma causes survivors to psychologically and biologically adapt to ‘living in a dangerous world’ (Cloitre et al., 2006). Teicher (2002) explains that early exposure to stress creates molecular and neurobiological changes, altering neural development so the adult brain can survive in a dangerous world.

In situations of early childhood trauma and abuse, the trauma and shock interferes with the ability to regulate emotions, causing frequent episodes of extreme/out of control emotions, including anger and rage (Linehan, 1993a).

An understanding of the neurophysiology of arousal as well as tools to help reduce arousal can help adult survivors cope better.

Donate Now!


Health Direct


Head to Health


“Blue Knot Foundation has a key role to play in the building of community capacity in care provision to those who have experienced childhood abuse and trauma in any environment.”

NIALL MULLIGAN Manager, Lifeline Northern Rivers

“I think Blue Knot Foundation is a fantastic support organisation for people who have experienced childhood trauma/abuse, for their families/close friends and for professionals who would like to learn how to more effectively work with these people.”

Psychologist Melbourne

“It's such a beautiful thing that you are doing. Helping people to get through this.”


“It was only last September when I discovered the Blue Knot Foundation website and I will never forget the feeling of support and empathy that I received when I finally made the first phone call to Blue Knot Helpline, which was also the first time I had ever spoken about my abuse.”


"At last there is some sound education and empathetic support for individuals and partners impacted by such gross boundary violations.”


Contact Us

Phone: 02 8920 3611
PO Box 597 Milsons Point NSW 1565
Hours: Mon-Fri, 9am-5pm AEST

Blue Knot Helpline
Phone: 1300 657 380
Hours: Mon-Sun, 9am-5pm AEST

For media comment, please contact:
Dr Cathy Kezelman AM
0425 812 197 or

For media enquiries, please contact: 
Alys Francis
0476 287 787 or